Saturday, February 15, 2020
Ch 41 dis - Essay Example ence liable for payment of USD 473, 790.18 towards response costs out of the total response costs amounted to USD 1,302,290.18 (Antitrust Division 2003). The share of response payment cost towards Alcan was only 5% of the defendant pool. Furthermore, it seems that Alcans share of liability is distributed on a contributory basis (Antitrust Division 2003). The court further observed that determination of harm is indivisible and it will not frustrate the right of a defendant to seek fair share of response cost from other defendants, as the contribution proceeds is on equitable footing. The court permitted to allocate response cost amongst the responsible where the court has no discretion to determine division of response cost (Antitrust Division 2003). Antitrust Division. United States v. Alcan Inc., Alcan Aluminum Corp., Pechiney, S.A., and Pechiney Rolled Products, LLC; Complaint, Proposed Final Judgment and Competitive Impact Statement. Federal Registrar, 2003. Accessed 7 July 2012.
Sunday, February 2, 2020
Perceptions of Adjustment to Stepfamily Living - Case Study Example According to the paper the age of the child to be included will be limited from age thirteen to eighteen. This case study will help individuals, couples, and families determine how to meet stepfamily challenges through a clearer understanding of how their own perceptions are contingent upon particular outcomes. This study will additionally contribute to the fields of social science, psychology and family therapy by adding to the already existing body of knowledge on stepfamily functioning. Finally, such information would be particularly valuable to professionals in the field who can draw on the findings to assist them as they work with stepfamilies in their daily practice, and to understand the value of the utilization of the therapeutic process. This study declares that stepfamilies are becoming an increasingly more common type of family in almost all countries, especially in the UK and USA. Increasing parental separation over past decades means that approximately one million children under 18 years of age will experience the divorce of their parents. A large population pool for remarriages and the formation of stepfamilies is created by high divorce rates. Estimates project that 50-60 percent of couples in first marriages will separate. Research indicates that women (mothers) ordinarily re-partner within 3-5 years post-separation and men (fathers) typically re-partner within 1-2 years of separation, most of these include children from a prior marriage, and thus, stepfamilies are formed. While educational, social, and economic factors present unique barriers to stepfamilies, societal stereotyping is another major challenge that stepfamilies encounter. The negative stereotyping of stepfamilies may lead new members of stepfami lies to expect negative outcomes which can then increase the chance of family disharmony.Ã
Saturday, January 25, 2020
Hemingways Economy Of Style English Literature Essay A Clean, Well-Lighted Place is arguably not only one of Hemingways best short stories but also a story that clearly demonstrates the techniques of Hemingways signature writing style. Hemingway is known for his economic prose-his writing is minimalist and sparse, with few adverbs or adjectives. He includes only essential information, often omitting background information, transitions, and dialogue tags such as he said or she said. He often uses pronouns without clear antecedents, such as using the word it without clarifying what it refers to. Hemingway applies the iceberg principle to his stories: only the tip of the story is visible on the page, while the rest is left underwater-unsaid. Hemingway also rarely specifies which waiter is speaking in the story because he has deemed such clarification unnecessary. The essential element is that two waiters are discussing a drunk old man-the rest can be omitted according to Hemingways economy of style. When the older waiter contemplates the idea of nothingness, Hemingway loads the sentences with vague pronouns, never clarifying what they refer to: It was all a nothing.Ã .Ã .Ã . It was only that.Ã .Ã .Ã . Some lived in itÃ .Ã .Ã . Although these lines are somewhat confusing, the confusion is the point. This nothingness cant be defined clearly, no matter how many words are used. Hemingway uses fewer words and lets the effect of his style speak for itself. The Deceptive Pacing of the Story Hemingway does not waste words on changing scenes or marking the passage of time, leaving it up to us to keep track of whats happening and the storys pacing. For example, only a brief conversation between the waiters takes place between the time when the younger waiter serves the old man a brandy and the time when the old man asks for another. Hemingway is not suggesting that the old man has slugged back the brandy quickly. In fact, the old man stays in the cafÃ © for a long time. Time has lapsed here, but Hemingway leaves it up to us to follow the pace of the story. The pace of A Clean, Well-Lighted Place may seem swift, but the action of the story actually stretches out for much longer than it appears to. The sitting, drinking, and contemplating that take place are languid actions. We may read the story quickly, but the scenes themselves are not quick. Just as Hemingway doesnt waste words by trying to slow down his scenes, he also refrains from including unnecessary transitions. F or example, when the older waiter leaves the cafÃ © and mulls over the idea of nothingness, he finishes his parody of prayer and, without any transition that suggests that he was walking, we suddenly find him standing at a bar. Hemingway lets the waiters thoughts serve as the transition. When he writes, He smiled and stood before a bar, were meant to understand that the waiter had been walking and moving as he was thinking to himself. And when the waiter orders a drink at the bar, the bartender offers him another just two sentences later. Again, Hemingway is not suggesting that the waiter gulps his drink. Instead, he conveys only the most essential information in the scene. Existentialism and the Lost Generation The term Lost Generation refers to the writers and artists living in Paris after World War I. The violence of World War I, also called the Great War, was unprecedented and invalidated previous ideas about faith, life, and death. Traditional values that focused on God, love, and manhood dissolved, leaving Lost Generation writers adrift. They struggled with moral and psychological aimlessness as they searched for the meaning of life in a changed world. This search for meaning and these feelings of emptiness and aimlessness reflect some of the principle ideas behind existentialism. Existentialism is a philosophical movement rooted in the work of the Danish philosopher SÃ ¸ren Kierkegaard, who lived in the mid-1800s. The movement gained popularity in the mid-1900s thanks to the work of the French intellectuals Jean-Paul Sartre, Simone de Beauvoir, and Albert Camus, including Sartres Being and Nothingness (1943). According to existentialists, life has no purpose, the universe is indiffer ent to human beings, and humans must look to their own actions to create meaning, if it is possible to create meaning at all. Existentialists consider questions of personal freedom and responsibility. Although Hemingway was writing years before existentialism became a prominent cultural idea, his questioning of life and his experiences as a searching member of the Lost Generation gave his work existentialist overtones. Themes, Motifs, and Symbols Themes Life as Nothingness In A Clean, Well-Lighted Place, Hemingway suggests that life has no meaning and that man is an insignificant speck in a great sea of nothingness. The older waiter makes this idea as clear as he can when he says, It was all a nothing and man was a nothing too. When he substitutes the Spanish word nada (nothing) into the prayers he recites, he indicates that religion, to which many people turn to find meaning and purpose, is also just nothingness. Rather than pray with the actual words, Our Father who art in heaven, the older waiter says, Our nada who art in nada-effectively wiping out both God and the idea of heaven in one breath. Not everyone is aware of the nothingness, however. For example, the younger waiter hurtles through his life hastily and happily, unaware of any reason why he should lament. For the old man, the older waiter, and the other people who need late-night cafÃ ©s, however, the idea of nothingness is overwhelming and leads to despair. The Struggle to Deal with Despair The old man and older waiter in A Clean, Well-Lighted Place struggle to find a way to deal with their despair, but even their best method simply subdues the despair rather than cures it. The old man has tried to stave off despair in several unsuccessful ways. We learn that he has money, but money has not helped. We learn that he was once married, but he no longer has a wife. We also learn that he has unsuccessfully tried to commit suicide in a desperate attempt to quell the despair for good. The only way the old man can deal with his despair now is to sit for hours in a clean, well-lit cafÃ ©. Deaf, he can feel the quietness of the nighttime and the cafÃ ©, and although he is essentially in his own private world, sitting by himself in the cafÃ © is not the same as being alone. The older waiter, in his mocking prayers filled with the word nada, shows that religion is not a viable method of dealing with despair, and his solution is the same as the old mans: he waits out the nighttime in cafÃ ©s. He is particular about the type of cafÃ © he likes: the cafÃ © must be well lit and clean. Bars and bodegas, although many are open all night, do not lessen despair because they are not clean, and patrons often must stand at the bar rather than sit at a table. The old man and the older waiter also glean solace from routine. The ritualistic cafÃ ©-sitting and drinking help them deal with despair because it makes life predictable. Routine is something they can control and manage, unlike the vast nothingness that surrounds them. Motifs Loneliness Loneliness pervades A Clean, Well-Lighted Place and suggests that even though there are many people struggling with despair, everyone must struggle alone. The deaf old man, with no wife and only a niece to care for him, is visibly lonely. The younger waiter, frustrated that the old man wont go home, defines himself and the old man in opposites: Hes lonely. Im not lonely. Loneliness, for the younger waiter, is a key difference between them, but he gives no thought to why the old man might be lonely and doesnt consider the possibility that he may one day be lonely too. The older waiter, although he doesnt say explicitly that he is lonely, is so similar to the old man in his habit of sitting in cafÃ ©s late at night that we can assume that he too suffers from loneliness. The older waiter goes home to his room and lies in bed alone, telling himself that he merely suffers from sleeplessness. Even in this claim, however, he instinctively reaches out for company, adding, Many must have it. The thought that he is not alone in having insomnia or being lonely comforts him. Symbols The CafÃ © The cafÃ © represents the opposite of nothingness: its cleanliness and good lighting suggest order and clarity, whereas nothingness is chaotic, confusing, and dark. Because the cafÃ © is so different from the nothingness the older waiter describes, it serves as a natural refuge from the despair felt by those who are acutely aware of the nothingness. In a clean, brightly lit cafÃ ©, despair can be controlled and even temporarily forgotten. When the older waiter describes the nothingness that is life, he says, It was only that and light was all it needed and a certain cleanness and order. The it in the sentence is never defined, but we can speculate about the waiters meaning: although life and man are nothing, light, clealiness, and order can serve as substance. They can help stave off the despair that comes from feeling completely unanchored to anyone or anything. As long as a clean, well-lighted cafÃ © exists, despair can be kept in check.
Friday, January 17, 2020
India has an asymmetric federal government, with elected officials at the federal, state and local levels. At the national level, the head of government, Prime Minister, is elected by the members of Lok Sabha, lower house of the parliament of India. All members of Lok Sabha except two, who can be nominated by president of India, are directly elected through general elections which takes place every five years, in normal circumstances, by universal adult suffrage. Members of Rajya Sabha, upper house of Indian parliament, are elected by elected members of the legislative assemblies of states and electoral college for Union Territories of India. In 2009, the elections involved an electorate of 714 million (larger than both EU and US elections combined). Declared expenditure has trebled since 1989 to almost $300 million, using more than one million electronic voting machines. The size of the huge electorate mandates that elections be conducted in a number of phases (there were four phases in 2004 General Elections and five phases in 2009 General Elections). It involves a number of step-by-step processes from announcement of election dates by the Election Commission of India, which brings into force the Ã¢â¬Ëmodel code of conductÃ¢â¬â¢ for the political parties, to the announcement of results and submission of the list of successful candidates to the executive head of the state or the centre. The submission of results marks the end of the election process, thereby paving way for the formation of the new government.
Thursday, January 9, 2020
Perspectives in Psychology This essay will give detailed descriptions of the behaviourist and cognitive perspectives in psychology and evaluate their key assumptions. The strengths and limitations of each perspective will be discussed along with an evaluation of their applications to contemporary issues in psychology. Finally there will be an analysis of the similarities and differences between each perspective and a conclusion. The behaviourist perspective is a scientific approach within psychology which claims that we are blank slates at birth and all human behaviour is learnt.Behaviourism was developed by John Watson in America in the early 1900s, (Cullis, T1999). Behaviourists focus on external conditions, learning and experienceÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦He investigated his theory further by repeatedly pairing a neutral stimulus with an unconditional stimulus, such as the ringing of a bell with the arrival of food; this eventually led to the bell ringing alone causing the dog to salivate. Pavlov believed the bell was a conditional stimulus and salivating to the bell was considered the conditional response. B. F. Skinner was another influential psychologist who developed the theory of operant conditioning. Unlike Pavlov, Skinner thought that behaviour was determined by the consequences or rewards generated after the response, he called this operant conditioning, (Cherry, K 2005). Skinner invented a device which contained a button which an animal could press in order to gain food, water or some other form of reinforcement. Using this box he discovered two forms of reinforcement, positive (which resulted in a favourable outcome), and negative (which resulted in removal of unfavourable outcomes). Cognitive psychology, as opposed to behavioural psychology, is the science of how we think. Cognitive psychologists are concerned with the human brain and its functioning as an information processor. Key areas of interest within cognitive psychology are mental processes such as memory, perception, problem solving, language, creativity, attention span and thinking. Ulric Neisser published Cognitive Psychology in 1967
Tuesday, December 31, 2019
TheÃ French really know how to celebrate New Years. Indeed, New Years in France is not just a day, or a day and an evening, but an entire season. Saying Happy New Year in French involves knowing basic New Years greetings as well as learning French New Years greetings related to the season. Typical French New Years Greeting In English, you say Happy New Year. But the French generally dont say new when wishing someone a great year. Instead, in French, you say only happy year, as in: Bonne annÃ ©e Happy New Year The French usually follow this expression with a phrase that literally translates as have a good health, as in: Bonne santÃ © Good health to you. To really understand how to send New Years greetings, its helpful to learn that in France, citizens celebrate the New Years (or holiday) season for more than a month.Ã Sending Greetings for the Upcoming Year The holiday season in France starts with la Saint Nicolas on Dec. 6. The holiday season actually ends onÃ Three Kings DayÃ (lEpiphanie)Ã when you typically eat une galette des roisÃ (a wafer of kings) on Jan. 6. Confusing matters even more, its customary to wait to send out your good wishes for a French happy (new) year until the end of January. These examples show what you might write on greeting cards to your French friends wishing them a happy new year. Toute la famille se joint Ã moi pour vous souhaiter une joyeuse annÃ ©e 2019: que la santÃ ©, lamour et la rÃ ©ussite vous accompagnent dans tous vos projets. Ã The whole family joins me in wishing you a joyful year in 2019: Let health, love, and success be with you in all your projects.Une annÃ ©e se termine, une autre la remplace: voici une merveilleuse occasion de vous adresser tous mes vÃ âux de bonheur et de rÃ ©ussite. Ã A year ends, another one replaces it: Here is a marvelous occasion to send you all my wishes for happiness and success.Je te souhaite une trÃ ¨s bonne annÃ ©e 2019, pleine de projets, de rencontres et de belles surprises. Ã I wish you a very happy 2019, full of projects, encounters, and beautiful surprises. Putting the New in French Happy New Year Though you dont say new when wishing someone a happy new year on Dec. 31 or Jan. 1, you can slip the word in when sending someone a card wishing her well at the end of the holiday season, as in: Tous nos vÃ âux pourÃ cetteÃ nouvelleÃ annÃ ©e,Ã ilsÃ portent enÃ euxÃ lexpressionÃ duneÃ sincÃ ¨re affection. All our wishes for this new year. They carry the expression of my deepest friendship.Nous vous envoyons tous nos meilleurs vÃ âux pour la nouvelle annÃ ©e et vous embrassons bien fort. Sending you all our kissesÃ for the new year.Que te souhaiter de mieux que la santÃ © dans ta vie, la prospÃ ©ritÃ © dans ton travail et beaucoup damour tout au long de cetteÃ nouvelleÃ annÃ ©e. Ã What best could we wish you more than health in your life, prosperity in work, and lots of love throughout the New Year?
Monday, December 23, 2019
After a schedule change, students and teachers have been having controversy about a four-period and eight-period school day. After two years of the new schedule, although calmed down somewhat, the controversy continues. An eight-period school day (traditional schedule) seems to be far outweighed by a four-period school day (block schedule). A four-period school day provides academic, educational, and emotional benefits when compared to an eight-period school day. A typical eight-period school day would have eight forty-seven minute long classes with a thirty minute lunch and five minutes between each class period, lasting the whole school year (7). A typical four-period school day would have four ninety-two minute long classes with a thirty minute lunch and seven minutes between each class period (7). The first four classes go from the middle of August to around the middle of January, then the next four go from the middle of January to the end of May. At Preston High School stude nts and teachers were surveyed on stress levels from each schedule. They were also surveyed on which schedule they thought was more effective for learning. A consensus between all of the students and teachers agreed that the block schedule was more effective for learning (8). They also all agreed that an eight period day proved significantly more stressful when compared to their amount of stress in a four period day (8). A block schedule is very beneficial if it is properly implemented.Show MoreRelatedArticle Analysis: Obama to Permit Young Migrants to Remain in US by Preston and Cushman1316 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesinto a qualifying set of demographic conditions. According to Julia Preston John H. Cushman Jr.s 2012 New York Times article entitled Obama to Permit Young Migrants to Remain in U.S, the President used his executive authority to limit the number of deportations committed upon illegal immigrants by easing the status of the youngest of these. 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Many wrestlers use unhealthy ways to cut weight; Ã¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬Å"of 713 high school wrestlers studied in Wisconsin, almost half revealed weight cutting habits that included two or more forms of bulimic-type behavior such as food and water deprivation, laxatives or induced vomitingÃ¢â¬ (Tresolini). While cutting weight may help aRead MoreEssay on The Boston Massacre: Whos to Blame1917 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pageswater, after responding to a fire alarm. Others had clubs to defend themselves or perhaps to threaten the despised Ã¢â¬Å"lobsterbacks.Ã¢â¬ Private Hugh White was, in fact, being threatened by several wigmakersÃ¢â¬â¢ apprentices (Aron 24). When Captain Thomas Preston heard of Private WhiteÃ¢â¬â¢s situation, he came with seven other soldiers to help. Words escalated into snowballs and stones, and the soldiers began to fight back with the butts of their guns. The crowd of Bostonians was growing and now numbered aboutRead MorePrimary Sources of Boston Massacre2239 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesMassacre | The Boston Gazette and Country Journal | March 12, 1770 | Reporting what happened on the day of massacre on the newspaper for locals to read. | The article described the scenario as a massacre due to the anger of some upset British troops who felt being insulted. It obviously accused Captain Preston. | The Bloody Massacre (Photo) | Paul Revere | 1770 | His painting depicted what happened on the day of March 5th 1770. | He exaggerated the scenario by painting the soldiers in cruelty that aimedRead MoreHow College Is Like Getting Slapped On The Face With A Big Fat884 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesmy response, my way of coping, and strategies to improve my response and coping. They were handwritten, because it was quicker, cheaper, and convenient. I usually wrote my journals right before I went to bed every day. At this time, I was calmer, more focused, and I could reflect on my day and write down everything that happened. Once I began journaling, I noticed that my initial responses to almost all of my stresses were physical and psychological. I refer back to my automatic reactions in journal